Who says you have to be in the sky to fly? Your feet may never leave the ground (well, the water), but the amazing sensation of waterskiing definitely compares to soaring through the air. The first person to master this sport was an 18-year-old named Ralph Samuelson. In 1922, Samuelson tried skiing over water first on barrel staves and then on snow skis. He finally found success on pine boards 2.5 meters (8 feet) long and 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Water-skiing really picked up speed after World War II, when affordable, high-horsepower outboard motors meant more people could own the fast boats needed to tow water-skiers. But how do you stand on water? The pressure on top of the water skis (including the weight of the ski, the person, and the air above both) remains constant, whether the skier is at rest or moving. However, as the skier picks up speed, the water pushes against the bottom of the skis. The wider or longer the ski, or the faster a boat is traveling, the easier it is for a skier to stay up on the water. The average speed to keep a 68-kilogram (150-pound) adult afloat on water skis would be 32-40 kilometers per hour (20-25 miles per hour). But for barefooting
, where all 68 kilograms of weight are concen-trated on the soles of two feet, a speed of 56 kilometers per hour (35 miles per hour) is necessary. Different lengths and edges
of water skis offer different combinations of speed and control. For instance, a beginning skier would want two longer skis for stability, with flat bottoms for riding high and fast on the wake
. A more advanced skier could switch to just one ski, called sloloming
, and use a beveled
bottom for more controlled turns. And highly experienced skiers may choose a ski with a concave
bottom, which holds turns by cupping water underneath. Some expert skiers even add an underwater rudder
with wings set at a particular angle to aid turning. These wings create drag and slow down the ski like a brake, making it easier to turn. Then, when the skier leans back to come out of a turn, the wings become parallel to the flow of water and offer minimal resistance.
Mold an aerodynamic water ski from clay and see if it stays afloat. Every time water-skiers cut into a curve, fluid dynamics are at work to keep them upright. In this activity, you'll work with-and against-fluid dynamics to learn how water skis are designed for different purposes. Materials
- modeling clay
- tub filled with water
1. First, experiment with the buoyancy of your clay. Mold different amounts of clay into aerodynamic and nonaerodynamic shapes. Drop them into the water from 30 cm (1') above the surface. Do some shapes sink faster than others? Does a higher or lower dropping distance affect how quickly they sink? 2. Tie the button onto the end of the thread. Shape the clay around the button into your most aerodynamic shape from step 1. Using constant speed, pull the clay along the surface of the water. Does it spin or travel straight? Now try your most nonaerodynamic shape, using the same amount of clay, and pulling it along at the same speed as before. Is it more difficult to keep the speed constant? Which of the two sinks faster when you stop pulling? 3. Start thinking like a water ski designer. First, experiment with different bottom shapes-square, beveled, and concave. What happens when you alter the bottom of one side of your clay "ski" but not the other? Can you create a ski that turns right while your "towrope" travels straight? One that dives underwater? 4. Try changing the point where your thread exits the clay. Move it up and down in front, as well as back and forth in the body. What changes? Add weight with pennies at different places on the clay. Can you build a "ski" that still moves straight and stays afloat with five pennies at the tip? How does your design change when you move the pennies to the back?