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Waterskiing

 

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Overview
Who says you have to be in the sky to fly? Your feet may never leave the ground (well, the water), but the amazing sensation of waterskiing definitely compares to soaring through the air. The first person to master this sport was an 18-year-old named Ralph Samuelson. In 1922, Samuelson tried skiing over water first on barrel staves and then on snow skis. He finally found success on pine boards 2.5 meters (8 feet) long and 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Water-skiing really picked up speed after World War II, when affordable, high-horsepower outboard motors meant more people could own the fast boats needed to tow water-skiers. But how do you stand on water? The pressure on top of the water skis (including the weight of the ski, the person, and the air above both) remains constant, whether the skier is at rest or moving. However, as the skier picks up speed, the water pushes against the bottom of the skis. The wider or longer the ski, or the faster a boat is traveling, the easier it is for a skier to stay up on the water. The average speed to keep a 68-kilogram (150-pound) adult afloat on water skis would be 32-40 kilometers per hour (20-25 miles per hour). But for barefooting, where all 68 kilograms of weight are concentrated on the soles of two feet, a speed of 56 kilometers per hour (35 miles per hour) is necessary. Different lengths and edges of water skis offer different combinations of speed and control. For instance, a beginning skier would want two longer skis for stability, with flat bottoms for riding high and fast on the wake. A more advanced skier could switch to just one ski, called slaloming, and use a beveled bottom for more controlled turns. And highly experienced skiers may choose a ski with a concave bottom, which holds turns by cupping water underneath. Some expert skiers even add an underwater rudder with wings set at a particular angle to aid turning. These wings create drag and slow down the ski like a brake, making it easier to turn. Then, when the skier leans back to come out of a turn, the wings become parallel to the flow of water and offer minimal resistance.

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